Agriculture remains the key to Africa’s economic future while approximately 200 million people are chronically hungry in there, yet. Shortage of cereal supplying locally accounts significantly for this as consequence of poor management of the ecosystems including land use and soil fertility especially, for rice production. In fact, low suitability and unstable rice yield are significantly contributing to food insecurity in Africa occasioning shifting cultivation disturbing native ecosystems in traditional land use. However, sound data are missing for yield gap as well as declining yield in intensified cropping systems according to difference agro-ecologies of Tropical Africa. Insight of agriculture systems services is presented in this book including land use, land tenure, land availability and climatic in relation with food crop production even for marginal crop as wheat in the humid forest of West Africa. Personal opinion of challenges is also included. This book presents the opportunity to reduce food insecurity in Sub-Sahara Africa as awareness for decision makers, scientists and for extension service.There is also academic aspects for capacity building and student training.