Implication of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes is suggested as free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. This imbalance can result in cell dysfunction and destruction resulting in tissue injury. These consequences of oxidative stress can promote the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. There is a need to continue to explore the relationship between free radicals, diabetes, and its complications, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which increased oxidative stress accelerates the development of diabetic complications, in an effort to expand treatment options. 1,3-Thiazolidine-2,4-diones (TZDs) are a new class of insulin-sensitizing drugs which exert their insulin sensitizing action through PPAR?. The present work reports the synthesis and evaluation of some 1,3-Thiazolidine-2,4-dione and their pharmacological evaluation for antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. People interested in research on diabetes will find this book an excellent source.