This book investigates the production of a nutraceutical, conjugated linoleic acid, having anti-cancerous and anti-obesity activity from oil derived from desert plant Balanites aegyptiaca. Conjugated linoleic acid is unique because the anticancer efficacy and anti- obesity activity is expressed at concentrations close to human consumption levels and hence is projected to be a potential material for pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements.Experimentally , Balanites aegyptiaca oil was extracted from the pulp using soxhlet extraction Three fatty acids in the extracted oil were segregated and identified. The fatty acid analysis was carried out using gas chromatography (GC). Crystallization mediated separation was performed to obtain linoleic acid which was used for synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Gas chromatography was employed for the qualitative determination of linoleic acid methyl ester. Bioconversion of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid was mediated with help of Lactobacillus sp.