Revision with unchanged content. In recent years, the synthesis of novel metamaterials exhibiting properties that cannot be found in nature, has gained considerable attention among several research groups. The realization of such media by simply resorting to cheap and easy-to-manufacture planar inclusions represents indeed an attractive alternative to most of the presently known solutions, generally consisting of bulky and loosely coupled 3-D inclusions. This work offers a fresh and original approach to the synthesis of high, low and negative index of refraction media by employing planar multilayered FSSs. Thanks to an extensive use of transmission lines models, innovative designs are proposed here along with a new visualization of effective medium condition in planar periodic media. Also ideas for small antennas and thin absorbers are derived in the last section of this work. Due to its clear and straightforward approach, this book is definitely suited for researchers who are new to the subject of artificial media. Moreover, the unconventional perspective from which covered topics are addressed, along with the innovative designs proposed, will indeed grab the attention of experienced readers as well.