Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The term “synthetic biology” is a new field of biological and technological research, involving such biological entities as cells, enzymes and genetic circuits, pursuing to design, construct and fabricate novel biological components, devices and systems that do not exist in the natural world. Although, it is believed that synthetic biology could have huge potential for creating new materials, medicines and fuels, many of environmental policy organizations as well as environmental campaigners are against the emerging science. Nevertheless, recent researches announced prospective efficacy of the synthetic biology in biofuels. To find out more about the new controversial science, its history and biotechnological perspectives – read this book.