Prior to the application of modern taphonomy to archaeology, associations between prehistoric stone tools and animal bones were often cited as ad hoc evidence for hunting and butchery, leading to the perception of our early hominin ancestors as carnivorous, killer apes. Over the past half-century, numerous experts have dedicated their research to unraveling the natural processes that create ancient bone assemblages; from life through death of the animals, to burial, excavation, and analysis. These efforts led to the awareness that man was not only a hunter, but also the hunted. This book employs many of these taphonomic methods in the analysis of the animal bones from Kalkbank. Despite the presence of Middle Stone Age tools, the bones at Kalkbank were not the spoils of prehistoric hunters, but the remains of carnivore kills—a serial predation site where carnivores routinely ambushed prey along the margins of a seasonal lake nearly 30 000 years ago. Along with a detailed account of the Kalkbank site itself, this book can be used by archaeology students and professionals alike as a practical guide to the taphonomic analysis of archaeological sites in South Africa and beyond.