Phytodiversity is a concept, which refers to the range of variations of differences along the same set of entities, thus refers to variety within the plant kingdom. It is defined in terms of genus, species and ecosystem, corresponding to their fundamental and hierarchically related levels of biological organization i.e. species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity. Phytodiversity is thus indeed commonly used to describe the number, variety and variability in plants. It is commonly used as synonym of plant taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is the most fundamental and the basic branch of Botany. In this book, phytodiversity of Churu district, which deals with 399 species belonging to 260 genera distributed among 89 families. The phytodiversity has been compared with the different flora. This book provides meaning of identification to the floral components from family to infra-specific level through keys and diagnostic descriptions and standardization of nomenclature of plants according to the ICBN, along with local names. The outcome of this book will be a valuable document for taxonomic study, for Botanist and other research scholars in different fields.