This book included seven chapters of an observational study from a physical education teacher education (PETE) program; it involved teaching and learning activities of 45 PE teachers and their students from a university and three high schools. Ninety lessons were videotaped and analyzed using a systematic observation system. Results showed that the three levels of teachers spent about 50% of class time on instructing and managing, wherein their students spent nearly 50% of class time on motor related activities. The Specialist Teachers (STs) provided more Feedback information and their students engaged in more Cognitive Engaged activities than those of Inservice Teachers (ITs) and Preservice Teachers (PTs). The students taught by the ITs engaged in more Motor Engaged activities than those taught by the STs and the PTs. The PTs employed more Informing and Praise teaching behaviors than those of the ITs and STs. The results of this study provided a set of new data and meaningful recommendations for the future operation of PETE programs. The discussions have positive impacts on the teaching effectiveness of the three levels'' PE classes.