Distribution and access to health care services are important issues within today's societies. In the light of continuing cost increases in the Austrian health care sector efficiency/productivity becomes a matter of consequence. Improvement in efficiency - while maintaining or even improving quality - can make a valuable contribution to significant problems, such as financing. Since in Austria a large part of the health expenditures is spent on hospitals, this book analyses how the relative hospital efficiency has developed between 1997 and 2008. Therefore two methodologies are used: the parametric Regression Analysis and the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis. This way, relevant information is also obtained on consistency of results within and across the two methods. In order to achieve information on productivity the Malmquist Productivity Index is applied as well. A book, which should be especially useful for professionals in the health care sector, or anyone else dealing with productivity and efficiency measurements.