Architecture is affected by the thrust of technology through history. Some technological advances have the potential to change conceptually the design practice. The Industrial Revolution''s central material fact, industrialized iron brought new possibilities, and drastically changed the traditional modes of design and construction. Nanotechnology presumed to be the Industrial Revolution of the 21st century as it opens the way towards new production routes and towards more efficient and intelligent materials. Architecture should respond to technological and environmental concerns and buildings of the 21st century should be responsive to environmental conditions to embrace sustainable development. In a world with growing concerns about global energy use and carbon emissions, energy efficient and sustainable building design becomes a necessity. Nanotechnology has the potential to offer also efficient solutions for the sustainable design. The book concludes with a review of the way in which nanotechnology will become a driver of change in the future by the understanding of materials and controlling their structure at the nanoscale.