The number of subscribers in India increased from a mere 10 million to 926.55 million and, in China from 45 million to 975.7 million in a time span of 17 years starting from 1995. The Indian telecommunication sector has maintained the impressive growth rate. However, in China the growth is slow and the market is moving towards the state of saturation. The Indian telecom sector in the last decade has seen major evolutions due to regulatory changes making telecom as one of the major spur in India’s growth story. Indian telecom sector is the most heavily burdened with government collections by 15 to 24 per cent of revenue, whereas it is only 3.5 per cent in China. Telecom industry contributes 2% to India’s GDP and is bound to increase owing to huge urban potential and untapped rural market. Through this manuscript, an in-depth analysis of the regulatory framework and institutional features of the telecommunication markets of India and China has been presented. This book can be of great help to the policy makers and scholars working in this field.