The aim of this book is to bring some light to the specificities of infrastructure industries in developing countries under the lessons derived from empirical analyses of the telecommunications sector. This work points out that policies followed in developing countries for the provision of telecommunications services in rural areas significantly differ from those implemented in developed countries in their fundamental objectives, the technological strategies deployed and the market and institutional environments they rest on. Moreover, investment efforts in rural areas could be rewarding both for the firm and consumers, particularly during peak hours when economic exchanges take place. This research also puts forward that the initial infrastructure deployment, the institutional risk and the financial constraints play a key role on defining infrastructure deployment through the reforms selected by the government. In addition, political accountability is a much more relevant determinant of regulatory performance in developing than in developed countries. The analysis should be especially useful to policy makers and researchers on the field of infrastructure in developing economies.