School fees are viewed as a major obstacle for children in developing countries to attend primary education, particularly the children of the poor. The abolition of school fees has been widely propagated as a measure to improve enrolment and participation rates. This monograph addresses the question whether the elimination of school fees has negative consequences for the quality of primary education. It compares the level of enrolment, pupil-teacher ratios, pupil progress, educational achievement, gender equity and regional equity in Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and Kenya. The relationship between the elimination of school fees and quality of primary education varies depending on the length of the time period covered and on the definition of quality being used. This study did not find negative effects in relation to pupil progress and learning achievements, 10 years after school fees were abolished. The monograph targets professionals in the field of education, policy makers, international organizations concerned with school-age children, donors in development aid, NGO's focusing on primary education, teachers and researchers.