Climate change, population growth and the degradation of essential natural resources are a challenge for the international community. This is particularly true for developing countries like some Arab states which not only have to face the challenge of rare natural resources, but also of defeating poverty and social disparity. The concept of “Sustainability” is a promising solution that incorporates environmental preservation, economic development and social equity and, therefore, creates a promising outcome for future generations. But how can Arab states use sustainable measures without failing to meet development goals? Using the examples of Morocco and Saudi-Arabia, this book focuses on problems that can be solved with the concept of sustainability. Furthermore, the analysis shows how these two states implement sustainability models in their politics.