Diabetes, and subsequently the metabolic syndrome, is a rising epidemic worldwide. The degree to which this is true for Africans has yet to be determined. It has however been found that urbanization, which affects health, occurs most rapidly in African countries. Also of concern is the fact that there are not yet ethnic specific cut-points for different health risk factors. This book will be the starting point from which the situation among Africans will be made more clearly. The main aim was to determine which easy to use anthropometric measurement can be used to identify persons of African descent with underlying health risks. This will be most useful in impoverished communities. Herewith the groundwork can be done to ultimately suggest cut-off values specific to Sub- Saharan Africans. This work would be especially useful for primary health care providers and persons wishing to better understand the situation of health in African communities.