This book portrays the reviews of the biogeographic principles that related to the biogeography of Ethiopian Wolf. Biogeography is the study of the past and present geographical distributions of organisms. Information on historical biogeography is obtained from center of origin and dispersal or colonization, panbiogeography, phylogenetic biogeography, cladistic biogeography and from parsimony analysis of endemicity. The past events in biogeography can be reconstructed from continental change, climate change and plate tectonics and land bridge. The evolution and distribution patterns of animals are determined by different limiting factors. The pattern of species accumulation on islands depends on the rate of evolution, rate of colonization, adaptive radiation and area and isolation effect. The Ethiopian Wolf is endemic and endangered canid that highly adapted to Afroalpine habitats of Ethiopia. It preys almost exclusively on Afroalpine rodent.It is evolved recently from grey wolves like canid around 100,000 years ago. Habitat loss and fragmentation, disease and inbreeding are threatening although there are conservation efforts by Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Program (EWCP).