The population status and behavioural ecology of mammals have been studied mostly in protected areas. But most of mammals that live in unprotected area are not very well studied and documented. So this monograph present and inform about gelada baboon that live in unprotected area - Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia. This book covers population status, distribution, behavioural ecology and human ? gelada conflict. There are more breeding females within the population of gelada baboon in the study area. The distribution of gelada baboons fluctuates during the wet and the dry seasons. A total of 60 plant species was consumed by gelada baboons during the study period. The animal consumes some species of plants in the study area that were ignored in other study areas. Gelada baboons dig the ground until the virgin land seems like the surrounding farmlands during the dry season. Human ? gelada conflict in the study area is extremely severe. The only safe haven for gelada baboons is the cliff. This monograph helps for those groups who are involved in wildlife ecology and management, conservation, mammals, primates and others.