This book provides a current economic assessment and an analysis of company perceptions regarding the Australian Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). The phenomenon of global warming is presented in the Australian context and it is assessed how this environmental threat affects the climate, ecology and economy in Australia. In a next step, the most suitable policy choices to tackle the problem of climate change are investigated. It is analysed whether an emissions trading scheme is the most effective choice for climate change mitigation in Australia. Following a detailed presentation of the main characteristics, features and economic effects of the CPRS, the empirical results of an online survey about company environmental representatives'' perceptions regarding the CPRS are presented. In the final chapter, the results of the economic assessment and the empirical analysis in combination with experiences of the European Union ETS are drawn upon to compile a critical evaluation of the Australian emissions trading scheme with the aim of enhancing effectiveness and efficiency, and preparing the CPRS for international emissions trading.