This is book is based on my master thesis in Sustainability Science and Environmental Studies at Lund University in 2011. It discusses the challenges the decision-makers in Lithuania had in the early 2000’s whether to shut down Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant or keep it operating. The analysis of this topic is based on holistic approach including socio-economic, environmental and political aspects. Since many nuclear power plants are ageing and many countries around the world claims they want to shut down their nuclear power plants, this thesis gives some insights about some challenges the policy-makers should expect to handle. This thesis is useful for decision-makers, NGOs, nuclear industry professionals, and also for radiation protection and nuclear safety professionals.