Revision with unchanged content. Despite the fact that Joseph Papp’s colorblind and uni-racial casting has had an impact as a racial project in the United States, there are significant elements to his casting which have yet to be explored. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent and nature of colorblind and uni-racial casting at the NYSF and explore how the two different methods of non-traditional casting were used at various times in the organization’s history. The analysis should help to answer the following questions- What motivated Papp to try non-traditional casting? How were Papp’s casting decisions linked to the social and political environment; what is the relationship between the practices and historical events? Did Papp’s casting choices work to reinforce or dispel racial categories prevalent in theatre and society? What were the audiences’ reactions to the two forms of casting? What was the impact of his work on his actors and the company he founded in the long term? The book is addressed to researchers in theatre, race relations, and history. The book is also directed to theatre educators, students, and professionals.