The Introduction draws attention to the emergence of the CPI-Maoist as a significant political, social and economic force that represents a growing challenge to the survival of the Indian state at present and a fore bearer of change to the status quo resulting from current political, social and economic policies pursued by the Indian governing elite now and in the future. The Prologue deals with the milestone formation of the CPI-Maoist in 2004 with the unification of the two largest Indian Maoist organisations, the MCC and PWG, and of how Maoism triumphed as the primary ideology of the far left in India. The Indian Polity gives an insight into9 the history of Indian politics. The origins of Indian Maoism analyses the meandering journey of Indian Communism from the establishment of the Comintern in 1919, the founding of the Indian Communist Movement in 1920, the formation of the CPI in 1925, Tebringal, the CPI-Marxist, Naxalbari and the CPI-ML, the MCC and PWG, World Communism and the supremacy of Maoism. The CPI(Maoist) section looks at the party. The Maoist Insurgency section analyses events between 2004-2007.