36 different indigenous peoples among less than 10 million people populate Bolivia, within this indigenous population there are high percentages of poverty. Development policies and practices are founded on a selection of outcomes and goals behind which lie a vision of human development. Nevertheless, there are competing definitions of development or wellbeing. Therefore, it seems very important to know more about the goals of development for groups of the population such as indigenous groups, in order to take into account their priorities. This study focuses on not only exploring the concept of development as it is understood by indigenous groups in Bolivia (Quechua and Aymara in rural areas), but also on exploring whether the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Human Development Index (HDI) reflect this understanding.