Lately, the critical analysis of the foundations of physics attracts attention of independent researchers. But to present day, physicists have no found methodological basis for critical analysis of the theories created by classics of physics. This book, therefore, provides the correct methodological basis – the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is proven within the framework of this methodological basis that the standard foundations of theoretical physics (i.e. classical mechanics, classical electrodynamics, special relativity, quantum mechanics, statistical physics, and thermodynamics) contain logical errors. It means that physics enters the greatest crisis. The crisis is explained by the fact that the inductive method of research of the Nature exhausts its potentialities. Application of the deductive method leads to formulation of new science paradigm and of new theory of knowledge which contain the concept (category) of God. The theoretical model of God as key to new foundations of science is proposed. The book should be useful to wide circle of scientists: physicists, chemists, biologists, philosophers, and professionals in theology.