This book uses the policy models constructed by Grindle and Thomas (1991) to explain the similarities and differences in the effectiveness of two very comparable Ghanaian reform measures: the Civil Service Reform Programme (CSRP) and the Civil Service Performance Improvement Programme (CSPIP). Due to their different strategies, tactics and approaches in the design and implementation processes,there are claims and counter-claims on the effectiveness of the CSRP and CSPIP in improving the performance of the Civil Service. Motivated by such claims, this book has assessed the design,implementation, outputs,outcomes,impact and challenges of the CSRP and CSPIP using inteviews, review of primary and secondary sources.The findings of the book show that encouraging results have been achieved in terms of “provision of inputs” and “outputs” of the CSRP and CSPIP. However, the findings also confirm that there are variations and between the two reform programs in their “approaches”, and “impact”. Factors that have contributed to the variations in the implementation effectiveness between the CSRP and CSPIP are political and bureaucratic commitment; and participation.