Since 1998, when a U.S. Department of Education report suggested that nearly a third of American students surveyed were civically illiterate, a number of initiatives have been launched to better prepare youth for active citizenship in adulthood. Efforts include, for example, the National Alliance for Civic Education (to promote democratic participation) in 2001 and The Civic Mission of Schools (recommendations to enhance civic education) in 2003. Given the current interest in youth civic development, the study described in this book was undertaken to generate information and insight to help guide such efforts in the future. Using the Civic Voluntarism Model of Verba, Schlozman, and Brady as a starting point, the study extends that model to include community behaviors and attitudes, as well as political activity. The resulting framework was evaluated using civic engagement data gathered from adolescents, parents, and other adults by the National Household Education Survey. The results of these analyses should be useful to parents, educators, policymakers, and others concerned about bringing young people into active participation in the political and civic life of their communities.