Lithuania, a small country located on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, was the first country to break away from the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. The door was opened to collaboration with professional colleagues from all over the world. Hence, a study of the history of Lithuanian nursing with emphasis on one of the major transitional periods, 1935 to 1945, became possible. Strauss (1991) described the study of social worlds and defined them as professional or occupational groups that shared a common activity. Five aspects of the social world of Lithuanian nursing were examined in this study. Significant individuals and events that contributed to changes in Lithuanian nursing were described. An analysis beyond 1945 revealed that no trends were continued from the interwar period (1918-1940). Lithuanian nurses were led down paths chosen by, and agreeable to, occupying military regimes. An incidental purpose of this study, the first compiled history of Lithuanian nursing with emphasis on 1935 to 1945, provides a basis for future comparison with nursing development in other Eastern European countries.