The importance of health care and the successful implementation of services in acute conflict situations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa have been and still are highly controversial, complex, and contentious issues. Broad historical accounts providing support for health care abound, as well as a plethora of opinions and ideas about how such activities are planned and implemented. The concept of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA) and their respective implementations are the subject of discussions on numerous websites and health guidelines of national and international authorities. The problem is that neither approach fully explains whether or not they are different or complement each other. Using acute conflict situations in sub-Saharan Africa, this study aims to clarify the relationship between PHC and EMA and provide a comparison of the tools required for their implementations. In particular, it attempts to give a clearer idea of the conditions necessary for the implementation of PHC and EMA.