Eastern Enlargement: This study analyses the possible costs and benefits of the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, thus the break up of the Warsaw Pact and Comecon as well as the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end of a historical era in Europe. With this historical change in the political and ideological structure, there appears an opportunity to establish a new European order. This study argues that enlargement of the European Union towards the east seems to be a step towards creating security and stability beyond the present borders of Europe. Therefore the coming enlargement seems to be “historically unique” and probably the “largest challenge”, which the Union has ever faced. A complete integration of the countries from Central and Eastern Europe with the European Union will probably be another momentous process in those countries'' history after their withdrawal from the Soviet sphere of influence.