Seabirds are increasingly being used as biological indicators since they are largely influenced by changes associated with the marine environment. At present the New Zealand populations of Little Blue Penguins (LBP: Eudyptula minor) are classified as ?Threatened'' and in ?Gradual Decline'' by the Department of Conservation. Effective conservation management of the North Island sub-species requires an understanding of the factors affecting their survival and breeding success. There is little information on the breeding ecology of the E. minor, especially in the North Island of New Zealand. The overall goal of this study was to establish baseline data on a North Island population of LBP in New Zealand. The aims of this study were to 1) identify population demographics, 2) quantify breeding success and identify abiotic and biotic parameters influencing nesting success, 3) identify feeding ecology based on diet and trophic level assessment, and 4) identify cause of death and underlying patterns associated with mass mortalities of the LBP species. By acknowledging the different parts of the penguins lifecycle as a whole, we can greater understand the links between the land and the sea.