Revision with unchanged content. Manufacturing, transportation, distribution, recycling, community cleanups and waste disposal of plastic bags have significant socio-economic costs that are ultimately absorbed by society. Plastic bags represent material waste in society and are an obvious source of litter in the marine and terrestrial environments. Ireland and Australia have sought to minimize the impacts of plastic bags, address fossil fuel resource consumption and clean up their country's environments. Ireland legislated the Plastic Bag Environmental Levy in 2002, while Australia currently utilizes a voluntary plastic bag reduction program. This book examines Ireland's and Australia's plastic bag reduction strategies, captures those elements that are successful and provides tangible aspects that will direct the implementation of a successful plastic bag reduction policy in Colorado.