Maize is the staple food for most South Africans. This implies that any damage to the maize crop will affect food security of many South Africans. Genetically modified Bt maize/yieldgard has been used by both commercial and smallholder farmers for approximately 10 years now to guard against stem borer damage. Results in this book reveal that Bt technology is beneficial not only to farmers but consumers of maize products as well through welfare gains as well as positive effects on human health. Due to the opportunity cost and effectiveness associated with traditional and conventional maize stem borer control methods, Bt technology has the potential to be part of the solution. An investigation of the economic viability of planting Bt maize seeds under smallholder farming conditions and identification of factors as well as perceptions relating to its characteristics highlighted its advantages and these findings concurs with results found by other authors.