Final examinations dominate the educational system of many countries. Most teachers plan and conduct their teaching methodologies based on the requirement of the examinations. Assessment is expected to have some impacts on what and how teachers teach. The notion of washback (the effect of testing on teaching and learning) is a common term in language teaching and testing, and tests are considered to be powerful determiners of what goes on in classrooms. This study explores the concept of washback effect by discussing various terms that have been used to describe this educational phenomenon. The aim of this book is to investigate whether final examinations have any washback effect on teaching and learning in distance education, and if so what kind of washback effect they may have. It also compares the effect of final examinations and the effect of other factors on teaching methodologies to consider which one has more impacts. This book can be regarded as a source of information for English Instructors at universities specifically for those who are teaching at open universities. Also, it would be useful for all the scholars who are interested in language teaching and testing.