Given the current trends of physical inactivity, overweight/obesity, and chronic disease prevalence, understanding appropriate levels of physical activity, healthful nutrition, and risk reduction for chronic-disease is crucial. As online education in the post-secondary setting increases, the question arises as to if this type of content can be delivered effectively online. This book provides a review of effective pedagogies for post-secondary adult learners in an online environment along with a review of students’ perceptions of an online personal health and fitness course. Three instructional theories and corresponding pedagogies particularly suited to distance education are reviewed. Additionally, an analysis of students’ perceptions as to the effectiveness of an online personal health and fitness course in terms of meeting course objectives, along with their perceptions of the effectiveness of such a course in either enhancing or modifying attitudes and choices related to physical activity, nutrition, and chronic disease prevention are reviewed. This analysis may be useful for the instructional design of online courses, especially online personal health and fitness courses.