Lacking the superpower status, Russia is striving to play an important role in the new international system. While the Medvedev Doctrine represents an important development in terms of redefining the threat posed by NATO and that from terrorism and smaller-scale conflicts, significant issues impacting Russian military reform and modernization still need to be dealt with, especially the disconnect between the force structure implied by the document?s threat analysis and the actual force structure is outlines for the Russian Armed Forces. The Russian Army is searching for a force structure whose nature and form satisfies the requirements of waging modern warfare against potential strategic foes armed with high technology weaponry and insurgent forces employing traditional unconventional warfare tactics. Against the backdrop of needed military reform, this article assesses how and why the modern Russian Army?s force structure is likely to evolve, and ponders the likely consequences of that evolution. Web also in this article examines the sweeping military reforms of Russian Defense Minister Anatolii Serdyukov and the future outlook for the Russian Armed Forces.