This book is an important piece of research for its relevance to the current difficulties in the complex situations of health care. It is innovative in its approach to using complex adaptive systems theory to investigate decision-making in a complex environment. It suggests that most matters facing healthcare executives and policy-makers are complex, and that complex decision processes are more emergent and adaptive than explicitly structured or rational. It also reveals that while evidence from economic evaluations is used in some situations, decision-making process is closely connected to the context at specific times and places. In addition, the book proposes a model of adaptive decision-making to show how it can help in making sense of complex decision-making.