Against the backdrop of increasing oil prices, the debate on peak oil, climate change and fossil energy use, the question of future energy supply is becoming ever more pressing. Closely related to these questions is the issue of the continued flow of energy supply. Dependence on one supplier elevates the danger of disruption. Therefore countries like Lithuania are highly sensitive about their energy dependence on Russia, a country that occupied them for decades. Starting with the definition of Energy Security and a review of the state of energy in the world, Europe and Lithuania, this study analyses Lithuania’s position within the global energy power structure and its dependence on Russia for gas and oil. By reviewing Russia’s use of energy as a leverage, for example in cases of Latvia or Ukraine, the study examines different strategies for Lithuania`s future Energy Security and calls for an integrated European concept and a strengthening of use of renewable energies to foster Lithuania’s Energy Security.