Human rights are inalienable and inviolable fundamental entitlements. The right of self-determination is one of such rights. It is the individual and collective right of the people, and especially of the indigenous peoples. Integrating indigenous knowledge systems is one of the tools to enforce the rights of self-determination to also ensure self-determined development. Starting from this perspective, this book presents the findings of a research work, which the author carried out on the actual enforcement of rights of self-determination and integration of indigenous knowledge systems of Gamo People of Ethiopia in light of the international legal instruments, policies of organizations of UN System such as International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and fundamental local laws and policy documents of Ethiopia. One of the aims of this study is to raise awareness on the indigenous knowledge systems and legal documents recognizing the rights of indigenous peoples. The author hopes that this study can add value to the development initiatives of Ethiopia and contribute its part to researchers, academic communities, policy makers, development partners and Gamo people.