This Monograph is focused on understanding the frequency and distribution of risk factors for adverse birth outcomes and is based on three studies carried out in Zimbabwe. In chapter 2, we assessed delivery patterns and birth outcomes over a one-year period from October 1997 to September 1998 at Harare Maternity Hospital. In chapter 3 we evaluated the Dubowitz and Ballard methods of estimating gestational age in 364 African newborn infants from October to December 1999. We also assessed the utility of using birth weight-adjusted scales. In chapter 4 we assessed risk factors for pre-term birth, pre-term labor and premature rupture of membranes from March to June 1999. This Monograph provides a general picture of the frequency and distribution of basic demographic and reproductive risk factors for poor birth outcomes. The studies have advanced our knowledge of the frequency and distributions of adverse birth outcomes and have also broadened our knowledge of their risk factors. We were able to demonstrate the feasibility of carrying out research in a resource constrained environment and identify the areas, which require future attention.