Taxonomic investigation of the family Asteraceae (Compositae) growing throughout the Rajshahi Division situated in the northern part of Bangladesh was carried out. A total of 36 species under 29 genera of the family Asteraceae were collected and identified. Of the total number of species, 8 were found under cultivation and 28 grow wild in the study area. Ageratum conyzoides, Blumea lacera, Eclipta alba, Tridax procumbens, Vernonia patula and Xanthium indicum were recorded as densely populated and Mikania cordata as the only climbing species. Blumea laciniata and Wedelia trilobata have been reported here for the first time from Rajshahi Division, and Perthenium hysterophorus as a new record from Bangladesh. Of the total number of species in the study area, 97.22% were recorded in Rajshahi district; 77.77% in Natore district; 75% in Nawabgonj district; 61.11% in Naogaon district; 72.22% in Bogra district and 66.66% in Joypurhat district. Finally, a new system of classification of the family Asteraceae has been proposed on the basis of morphological, anatomical and floral characters.