This book examines the changes witnessed over the last half-century in the demographic phenomenon of human fertility in Kenya; a country located in East Africa. In chapter one – introduction - the research problem is stated following a review of the national context. Chapter two reviews the literature on the fertility transition in North, West, Southern, and Eastern Africa before finally focusing on Kenya. In chapter three, the strengths and limitations of the various data-sets used in the book are discussed. In chapter four the methods of data analysis (demographic and econometric alike) are presented. The next three chapters constitute the body of the book. Chapter five addresses the patterns associated with fertility change at the sub-national level. Chapter six is devoted to the factors associated with the transition to the second and third births; chapter seven focuses on the determinants of choosing a method of family planning. The last chapter, eight, discusses and synthesizes the research findings into an explanation for the initial rapid fall, and more recent leveling off, in Kenyan fertility, concluding with a review of prospects for further fertility decline.