The work of the board in the non-profit sporting context has received little attention from academics, yet is widely recognized as a central "management" issue for sport organizations. In particular, the strategic role of the board, while recognized as a key function, is a fuzzy concept for many. In order to learn more about this aspect of sport management, the research investigated how boards of national sport organizations (NSOs) could develop their strategic capability. This work considered what meaning board members of NSOs attach to the concept of "strategic capability"; what factors both constrain and enable the strategic capability of NSO boards; what actions can be taken to develop the strategic capability of NSO boards; and what are the implications of such action. By engaging an action research approach, unique to this field of study, this research not only developed theory but also created change within the selected organizations in order to gain a deeper understanding of board strategic capability.