Oil and gas exploration in Afghanistan diverted the attention of international community towards the mineral resources of the country. From 1960 to 1980,about fifteen oil and natural gas fields were discovered in northern Afghanistan. In 2008, Russia sought to extend its gas pipeline to Europe. War between Pakistan and India in Afghanistan, civil war in Pakistan and Afghanistan created some difficulties in exploring the natural resources of Afghanistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan finalized a new Afghan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement(APTTA)which allows Afghan trucks to carry export goods to Wagah border for destinations in India. This agreement allows Pakistan to use Afghan territory as transit rout. Indian goods for Afghanistan will not be allowed to transit through land route in Pakistan. The new agreement replaced the 1965 transit trade agreement which allows landlocked Afghanistan to import goods through Pakistani ports. The declaration was signed on the occasion of the visit of Afghan President Hamid Karzai to Pakistan on the invitation of President Asif Ali Zardari.