This book investigates socio-economic and health economic issues related to the Kenyan people using the 2003 KDH Survey Data. The studies give empirical evidence that helps to understand the impact of socio-economic and health factors, including HIV/AIDS, on child schooling and health status. The book comprises five chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction and overview of the research work. Chapter 2 examines the factors contributing to an individual acquiring HIV, focusing on behavioural, personal and household characteristics and other socio-economic factors. Chapter 3 deals with children’s education outcomes: examining school attendance, attainment, and rates of grade progression, focusing on the impact of individual and household characteristics. It incorporates the effect of socio-cultural factors and HIV/AIDS on child schooling. Extensive work is done on relevant econometric and statistical tools designed to address the difficulties associated with the variables used in the analysis such as endogeneity, sample selection and missing data. The discussion and conclusion gives some guidance to education policy makers in Kenya and other parts of the world with similar conditions.