This review describes the recent status of the River Nile water quality. The previous studies performed on the effect of industrial pollutants on the quality of the river Nile water and sediments and related subjects are summarized. The data of analysis of River Nile water and sediments in Upper Egypt indicate that Nile water in this region is not apparently polluted since the amount of pollutants disposed in this part is relatively low and undergoes strong dilution by the fresh Nile water. In comparing the reported results, it is also apparent that the concentrations of most pollutants increase from south to north. The remarkable pollution of river Nile water and sediments in the Delta region is a result of the higher population in Cairo and the Delta and the accelerated growth of industry and factories which discharge their effluents, mostly untreated, directly into the Nile.