Migration pessimists’ have argued that out-migration undermines traditional rural livelihoods and social institutions by removing the young, healthy, and educated from local populations. They also charge that migrant remittances are spent largely on conspicuous consumption. ‘Migration optimists’ on the other hand’ respond that rural-urban migration can make important poverty-reducing contributions to household incomes, with multiplier effects across communities. This book looks on the Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Livelihoods. It looks among other things the causes and the copying strategies used by the people who are left in rural areas. Rural-Urban migration brings changes on physical, social, financial, political and natural assets in rural areas. However rural-urban migration is said to be caused by both push and pull factors in rural and urban areas respectively.