Poverty is the most pressing human right challenge for old people especially women who face income insecurity due to lack of social security coverage or lower contribution to social security and lower pension benefits. Gender gaps in the labour market negatively impact the future retirement benefits of the woman whereby the majority of women get fewer benefits compared to majority of men. This situation is due to lower contribution of women in social security during their active life. Women are more likely than men to be poor with no income or lower wages and to work in the informal sector, especially in agriculture where labour and social security laws are not practically applicable. Due to gender division of labour (separation of jobs into male and female tasks), women work in household, in low-paid jobs, and interrupt their professional careers due to pregnancy and maternity leave. Sometimes their salaries and chances of promotion are lessened. The present research gives more details as it examines the impact of gender division of labour on old-age pension in Rwanda.