The recent three decades has witnessed a conspicuous change in public service management of African countries. Many African countries have engaged themselves in public service reform that encompasses decentralising the local government services. Tanzania is among African countries that has undertaken both Public Service Reform and Local Government Reform Programmes. The two programmes are highly interrelated but this book concentrates more in the local government reform implementation. The book is broadly concern with human resource capacity building in the local authorities. Specifically, the book covers the nature of the Tanzanian local authorities, the Local Government Reform Programme impacts and the institutional influences to the local authorities’ human resource capacity.