Pakistan will soon become water poor country. In many areas, farmers are pumping ground water faster than nature is replenishing it, causing a steady drop in water table. Groundwater over-pumping could now be the single biggest threat to Indus agriculture. Over- tapped rivers are easy to see and the consequences fairly visible. Ground water overdraft, though hidden from view, is even more serious problem. This coupled with global warming will further exacerbate the issue of water insecurity in Pakistan. The pace of dam building is slowing down because of the resource constraints; environmental concerns and regional conflict (hydro-politics). The surface waters though scarce, if managed properly, could only ensure the sustainability of agriculture. Now that water is increasingly scarce, however, raising productivity? getting more service, satisfaction and benefit out of every liter we remove from a river (Indus, and other tributaries), lakes, mountain spring, or under ground aquifer?is the key to meeting future needs of the country. Thus water productivity?getting more crops per drop seems to be the agricultural frontier for Indus Basin in the 21st century.