Classical design principles such as balance, symmetry, and proportion inform the art and architecture not only of Ancient Greece and Rome, but also of much of the Western world that followed. These principles reflect values of order and reason that have come to define and shape Western notions of civilization itself. But where and how did such principles originate? This book attempts to address these questions by examining interrelationships between temple design and urban planning in Greek colonies of South Italy and Sicily during the Archaic and Classical periods– that is, within a historical context in which Greeks were literally starting from scratch creating a new world for themselves, which is the foundation for our own. Focusing on mathematical correlations, it explores the extent to which the pragmatic needs of human habitation gave birth to aesthetic ideals which Greeks articulated in their houses for the divine. It should prove useful not only for historians of architecture, art, or urban planning interested in the roots of Classical design principles, but also for anyone interested in the history of ideas and in the complex interrelationship between society and art.