During the Iron Age II period of the Southern Levant, both the Central Negev Highlands and the Edomite Plateau experienced intensified settlement. Using available excavation and survey reports, this thesis classifies and maps sites within these regions. GIS mapping software enabled the analysis of regional environment alongside settlement patterns to help understand the possible reasons for settlement intensification in this relatively harsh environment. Additionally, ceramic, epigraphic, and historical evidence is considered. It was discovered that, although the Central Negev Highlands settlement preceded that of the Edomite Plateau, the clear motivation behind an augmented sedentary population in both regions was increased agropastoral production. Defense was another important feature of this settlement. This thesis provides a useful summary and visualization of archaeological investigations conducted in the Central Negev Highlands, Southern Ghors, Wadi Arabah, and Edomite Plateau during or prior to the 1990s, and would be of interest to anyone researching the Iron Age history of southern Israel or Jordan.